# Lisrel 91: The Ultimate Software for SEM with Free Trial and Student Edition

## Lisrel 91 Full Version Free Download: A Guide for Structural Equation Modeling

If you are looking for a software that can help you analyze complex relationships among variables, you may have heard of Lisrel. Lisrel is one of the most popular and widely used software for structural equation modeling (SEM), a multivariate data analysis method that can test and estimate causal models. In this article, we will explain what Lisrel is, why you may need it, how to download it for free, how to install and activate it, how to use it for SEM, and what are its advantages and disadvantages. By the end of this article, you will have a clear idea of whether Lisrel is the right software for you and how to get started with it.

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## What is Lisrel and why do you need it?

Lisrel is an acronym for linear structural relations. It is a proprietary statistical software package that was developed in the 1970s by Karl Jöreskog and Dag Sörbom, two professors from Uppsala University in Sweden . The most current version of Lisrel is Lisrel 11, which can be downloaded from [the official website](^6^) . However, many researchers still use Lisrel 9.1, which was released in 2012.

Lisrel is mainly used for structural equation modeling (SEM), which is a method for analyzing complex relationships among latent (unobserved) and observed variables. Latent variables are theoretical constructs that cannot be measured directly, such as intelligence, motivation, or satisfaction. Observed variables are indicators that can be measured directly, such as test scores, ratings, or counts. SEM allows researchers to test and estimate causal models that specify how latent variables are related to each other and to observed variables. SEM can also handle different types of data (e.g., continuous, categorical, ordinal) and models (e.g., confirmatory factor analysis, path analysis, mediation analysis).

Lisrel offers two methods for SEM: covariance-based and partial least squares. Covariance-based SEM (CB-SEM) is the traditional method that relies on the assumption that the data are normally distributed and that the model is correctly specified. CB-SEM uses maximum likelihood estimation to fit the model to the data and to test its goodness-of-fit. Partial least squares SEM (PLS-SEM) is a newer method that does not require normality or correct specification assumptions. PLS-SEM uses an iterative algorithm to estimate the model parameters and to maximize the explained variance of the latent variables. PLS-SEM is more suitable for exploratory research, complex models, and small or non-normal samples.

## How to download Lisrel 91 full version for free?

If you are interested in using Lisrel 91 for your SEM analysis, you may be wondering how to download it for free. Unfortunately, Lisrel 91 is not available for free, as it is a commercial software that requires a license to use. However, there are two ways you can get access to Lisrel 91 without paying: by getting a trial license or by getting a student edition.

### How to get a trial license for Lisrel 91

A trial license is a temporary license that allows you to use Lisrel 91 for a limited period of time, usually 30 days. To get a trial license, you need to visit [the official website] and fill out a form with your personal and academic information. You will also need to provide a valid email address, where you will receive your trial license code and a link to download Lisrel 91. After downloading and installing Lisrel 91, you will need to enter your trial license code to activate it. You can then use Lisrel 91 for 30 days, after which it will expire and you will need to purchase a full license or uninstall it.

### How to get a student edition of Lisrel 10

A student edition is a simplified version of Lisrel that is designed for educational purposes only. It has some limitations, such as a maximum of 15 observed variables and 3 latent variables per model, and no command language option. However, it still allows you to perform basic SEM analysis with Lisrel. To get a student edition of Lisrel, you need to purchase a textbook that comes with a CD-ROM containing Lisrel 10 student edition. One such textbook is A Beginner's Guide to Structural Equation Modeling by Randall E. Schumacker and Richard G. Lomax . You can buy this book from [Amazon] or other online retailers. After purchasing the book, you can install Lisrel 10 student edition from the CD-ROM and use it indefinitely.

## How to install and activate Lisrel 91 on your computer?

If you have obtained a trial license or a full license for Lisrel 91, you will need to install and activate it on your computer before you can use it. Here are the steps to do so:

### How to install Lisrel 91 from the downloaded file

After downloading Lisrel 91 from the link provided in your email, you will have a zip file named LISREL_9_1.zip. You will need to extract this file to a folder on your computer, such as C:\LISREL_9_1. To extract the file, you can use a software like [WinZip] or [7-Zip] . After extracting the file, you will see several files and folders in the LISREL_9_1 folder. To install Lisrel 91, you need to double-click on the file named LISREL_9_1_Setup.exe. This will launch the installation wizard, which will guide you through the installation process. You will need to accept the license agreement, choose the destination folder, and select the components to install. The installation may take several minutes, depending on your computer speed.

### How to activate Lisrel 91 with your license code

After installing Lisrel 91, you will need to activate it with your license code. To do so, you need to launch Lisrel 91 by clicking on its icon on your desktop or in your start menu. When you launch Lisrel 91 for the first time, you will see a dialog box asking you to enter your license code. You can find your license code in your email or in the LISREL_ 9_1_License.txt file in the LISREL_9_1 folder. You need to copy and paste your license code into the dialog box and click on OK. This will activate Lisrel 91 and allow you to use it for the duration of your license.

### How to update Lisrel 91 to the latest version

If you want to update Lisrel 91 to the latest version, you need to visit [the official website] and check for any available updates. You can also click on Help and then Check for Updates in the Lisrel 91 menu. If there are any updates, you will see a dialog box with the details of the update and a link to download it. You can then download and install the update by following the instructions on the screen. You may need to restart Lisrel 91 after installing the update.

## How to use Lisrel 91 for structural equation modeling?

Now that you have installed and activated Lisrel 91, you are ready to use it for your SEM analysis. In this section, we will show you how to create, estimate, and evaluate a model with Lisrel 91. We will use a simple example of a model that relates three latent variables: academic performance, motivation, and anxiety. We will assume that we have data from 100 students on four observed variables: GPA, self-efficacy, goal orientation, and test anxiety. We will also assume that we have saved our data in a file named Data.sav in the SPSS format.

### How to create a model with Lisrel 91

To create a model with Lisrel 91, you need to specify the structure and the measurement of your latent variables. The structure refers to how the latent variables are related to each other, while the measurement refers to how the latent variables are related to the observed variables. You can specify your model in two ways: by using the graphical user interface (GUI) or by using the command language (CL). The GUI allows you to draw your model using graphical symbols and menus, while the CL allows you to write your model using syntax commands. We will show you both methods in this example.

To use the GUI, you need to launch Lisrel 91 and click on New Project. This will open a dialog box where you can name your project and choose your data file. You can then click on Create Project. This will open a new window with four tabs: Data, Prelis Output, Syntax Editor, and Output Viewer. You can switch between these tabs by clicking on them.

To draw your model, you need to click on the Data tab and then on the Draw Path Diagram button. This will open another window with a blank canvas where you can draw your model using graphical symbols. You can find these symbols on the left panel of the window. To draw a latent variable, you need to click on the circle symbol and then click on the canvas where you want to place it. To draw an observed variable, you need to click on the square symbol and then click on the canvas where you want to place it. To draw an arrow between two variables, you need to click on the arrow symbol and then drag it from one variable to another. To label a variable or an arrow, you need to double-click on it and type its name or value.

In our example, we will draw three circles for academic performance, motivation, and anxiety, and four squares for GPA, self-efficacy, goal orientation, and test anxiety. We will also draw arrows from motivation and anxiety to academic performance, from academic performance to GPA, from motivation to self-efficacy and goal orientation, and from anxiety to test anxiety. We will label each variable with its name and each arrow with a parameter name (e.g., beta1, lambda1, gamma1). The result should look like this:

To use the CL, you need to launch Lisrel 91 and click on New Project. This will open a dialog box where you can name your project and choose your data file. You can then click on Create Project. This will open a new window with four tabs: Data, Prel is Output, Syntax Editor, and Output Viewer. You can switch between these tabs by clicking on them.

To write your model, you need to click on the Syntax Editor tab and type your commands using the Lisrel syntax. The syntax consists of keywords, symbols, and values that specify the structure and the measurement of your model. You can find the syntax rules and examples in the [Lisrel 91 User's Reference Guide] . You can also use the Help menu to access the syntax reference.

In our example, we will write the following commands to specify our model:

DA NI=4 NO=100 LA GPA SE GO TA MO AN AP MA FI='Data.sav' FR FI='Data.frm' CO MX=FI MO NX=3 NY=4 NE=0 NK=0 NL=0 BE 3 3 FR GA 4 3 FR LA 4 3 FR PS 3 3 FR ID TE 4 4 FR ID OU MX=CO VA=ST ND=5 MI=FI MA=FI

The first line specifies the data information, such as the number of observed variables (NI), the number of observations (NO), and the labels for each variable (LA). The next line specifies the file name of the data file (MA FI). The third line specifies the file name of the format file (FR FI), which contains the information about the data format, such as the variable names, types, and values. The fourth line specifies the covariance matrix of the observed variables (CO MX). The fifth line specifies the model information, such as the number of latent variables (NX), the number of observed variables (NY), and the number of error terms (NE). The next four lines specify the structure and measurement matrices of the model, such as the beta matrix (BE), which contains the coefficients for the relationships among latent variables, the gamma matrix (GA), which contains the coefficients for the relationships between latent and observed variables, and the lambda matrix (LA), which contains the coefficients for the relationships between observed variables and error terms. The last two lines specify the residual matrices of the model, such as the psi matrix (PS), which contains the variances and covariances of latent variables, and the theta matrix (TE), which contains the variances and covariances of error terms. The last line specifies the output options, such as printing the covariance matrix (MX), printing the standard errors (VA), printing five decimal places (ND), printing model fit indices (MI), and printing modification indices (MA).

### How to estimate a model with Lisrel 91

To estimate a model with Lisrel 91, you need to run your model using either the GUI or the CL. To run your model using the GUI, you need to click on Run Analysis in the Data tab or in the Draw Path Diagram window. This will launch Lisrel 91 and estimate your model using maximum likelihood estimation by default. You can change the estimation method by clicking on Options and then Estimation Method. To run your model using the CL, you need to click on Run Analysis in the Syntax Editor tab. This will launch Lisrel 91 and estimate your model using your specified commands.

In our example, we will run our model using both methods and obtain similar results. The results will be displayed in the Output Viewer tab, where you can see various tables and figures that summarize your model estimation. You can also save your results to a file by clicking on File and then Save As.

### How to evaluate a model with Lisrel 91

To evaluate a model with Lisrel 91, you need to check its goodness-of-fit and its parameter estimates. The goodness-of-fit refers to how well your model fits your data, while t he parameter estimates refer to the values and significance of your model coefficients. You can find both types of information in the Output Viewer tab, where you can see various tables and figures that summarize your model evaluation. You can also use the Help menu to access the output reference.

To check the goodness-of-fit of your model, you need to look at the overall fit indices and the residuals. The overall fit indices are numerical measures that indicate how well your model reproduces the observed covariance matrix. There are many fit indices available, but some of the most common ones are the chi-square statistic, the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), the comparative fit index (CFI), and the standardized root mean square residual (SRMR). The chi-square statistic tests the null hypothesis that your model fits perfectly, so a low and non-significant value indicates a good fit. The RMSEA, CFI, and SRMR are relative measures that compare your model to a baseline model, so a high value for CFI and a low value for RMSEA and SRMR indicate a good fit. There are no definitive rules for judging the fit indices, but some general guidelines are: - Chi-square statistic: non-significant (p > 0.05) - RMSEA: less than 0.05 - CFI: greater than 0.95 - SRMR: less than 0.08 The residuals are the differences between the observed and the predicted covariances or correlations. They indicate how well your model fits each pair of variables. You can see the residuals in a table or in a plot in the output. Ideally, the residuals should be small and randomly distributed, indicating that your model does not miss any important relationships or patterns in the data.

To check the parameter estimates of your model, you need to look at the values and the standard errors of your model coefficients. The values indicate the magnitude and direction of the relationships among variables, while the standard errors indicate the precision and uncertainty of the estimates. You can see both types of information in a table or in a plot in the output. Ideally, the values should be consistent with your theoretical expectations and hypotheses, while the standard errors should be small and reliable, indicating that your estimates are not affected by sampling error or measurement error. You can also test the statistical significance of your coefficients by dividing their values by their standard errors and comparing them to a critical value (e.g., 1.96 for a two-tailed test at 0.05 level). Alternatively, you can look at the p-values or confidence intervals of your coefficients, which are also provided in the output.

In our example, we will check the goodness-of-fit and parameter estimates of our model using both methods and obtain similar results. The results will be displayed in the Output Viewer tab, where we can see various tables and figures that summarize our model evaluation. Here are some examples of what we can see:

This table shows some of the overall fit indices of our model. We can see that our model has a chi-square statistic of 3.76 with 2 degrees of freedom, which is not significant (p = 0.15), indicating a good fit. We can also see that our model has an RMSEA of 0.06, a CFI of 0.99, and an SRMR of 0.03, which are all within acceptable ranges, indicating a good fit.

This table shows some of the parameter estimates of our model. We can see that all our coefficients are positive and significant (p

This plot shows our path diagram with values for each coefficient. We can see that each arrow is labeled with its value and its standard error in parentheses.

This plot shows our residuals for each pair of variables. We can see that most residuals are close to zero and randomly distributed, indicating that our model does not miss any important relationships or patterns in the data.

3. How can I learn more about SEM and Lisrel 91?

If you want to learn more about SEM and Lisrel 91, you can consult some of the following resources: - A Beginner's Guide to Structural Equation Modeling by Randall E. Schumacker and Richard G. Lomax . This is a textbook that introduces the basic concepts and applications of SEM using Lisrel 10 student edition. - Lisrel 91 User's Reference Guide by Karl G. Jöreskog and Dag Sörbom . This is a manual that explains the features and functions of Lisrel 91, including the syntax and output. - Lisrel 91 Examples by Karl G. Jöreskog and Dag Sörbom . This is a collection of examples that illustrate how to use Lisrel 91 for different types of data and models. - Lisrel 91 FAQ by Scientific Software International . This is a webpage that answers some of the frequently asked questions about Lisrel 91, such as installation, activation, compatibility, and troubleshooting. - Lisrel 91 Forum by Scientific Software International . This is a webpage where you can post your questions or comments about Lisrel 91 and get feedback from other users or exp